The role of exercise training on lipoprotein profiles in adolescent males

Majid S. Koozehchian, Farzad Nazem, Richard B. Kreider, William J. Roberts, Thomas M. Best, Yi Rong, Li Zuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Major cardiovascular disorders are being recognized earlier in life. In this study we examined the effects of swimming and soccer training on male adolescent lipid-lipoprotein profiles relative to a maturity matched control group to determine the effects of these exercises on specific cardiovascular risk and anti-risk factors. Methods. Forty five adolescent males (11.81 ± 1.38 yr) including swimmers (SW), soccer players (SO), and non-athlete, physically active individuals as controls (C), participated in this study. Training groups completed 12-wk exercise programs on three non-consecutive days per week. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in control, pre-training, during-training, and post-training. Results: In response to the 12-wk training period, the SO group demonstrated a decrease in the mean LDL level compared to the SW and C (SW: 0.15%; SO: -9.51%; C: 19.59%; p < 0.001) groups. There was an increase in both the SW and SO groups vs. the control in mean HDL (SW: 5.66%; SO: 3.07%; C: -7.21%; p < 0.05) and apoA-I (SW: 3.86%; SO: 5.48%; C: -1.01%; p < 0.05). ApoB was considerably lower in the training groups vs. control (SW: -9.52%; SO: -13.87%; C: 21.09%; p < 0.05). ApoA-I/apoB ratio was significantly higher in training groups vs. control (SW: 16.74%; SO: 23.71%; C: -17.35%; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups for other factors. Conclusions: The favorable alterations in LDL, HDL, apoA-I, and apoB observed in the training groups suggest that both regular swimming or soccer exercise can potentially mitigate cardiovascular risk in adolescent males.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number95
JournalLipids in Health and Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 9 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-risk factors
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Cholesterol
  • Lipids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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