Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) programmed necrosis contributes to ischemia-reperfusion-induced retinal damage

Galina Dvoriantchikova, Alexei Degterev, Dmitry Ivanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury remains a common cause of blindness and has a final pathway of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death by apoptosis and necrosis. RGC apoptosis was intensively studied in IR injury, while RGC necrosis did not receive nearly enough consideration since it was viewed as an accidental and unregulated cellular event. However, there is evidence that necrosis, like apoptosis, can be implemented by a programmed mechanism. In this study, we tested the role of RGC programmed necrosis (necroptosis) in IR-induced retinal injury. We employed the mouse model of retinal IR injury for invivo experiments. The oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model was used as an IR model invitro. Primary RGCs were isolated by an immunopanning technique. Necrostatin 1 (Nec1) was used to inhibit necroptosis in invitro and invivo experiments. The changes in gene expression were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The distribution of proteins in the retina and in RGC cultures was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Our data suggest that proteins (Ripk1 and Ripk3), which initiate necroptosis, were present in normal and ischemic RGCs. Treatment with Nec1 significantly reduced retinal damage after IR. Increased RGC survival and reduced RGC necrosis following OGD were observed in Nec1-treated cultures. We found significantly reduced expression of genes coding pro-inflammatory markers Il1b, Ccl5, Cxcl10, Nos2 and Cybb in Nec1-treated ischemic retinas. Thus, our findings suggest that RGC necroptosis contributes to retinal damage after IR through direct loss of cells and induction of associated inflammatory responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Eye Research
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Ischemia-reperfusion
  • Necroptosis
  • Necrostatin 1
  • Retinal damage
  • Retinal ganglion cells
  • Ripk1
  • Ripk3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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