Involvement of cigarette smoke-related hydroquinone in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration

Marianne Pons, Maria E. Marin-Castaño

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The goal of this chapter is to review the most relevant scientificevidence supporting the role of cigarette smoke-related hydroquinone inthe pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a majorcause of blindness among the elderly and to highlight the importance ofsmoking cessation to reduce the risk for developing AMD. AMD is a lateonset (after age 50), progressive degeneration of the retina associatedwith vision loss coupled with a spectrum of specific clinical,physiological and histopathological features. The early or dry stage ofAMD is characterized by the accumulation of drusen, specific lipid richdeposits under the retina whereas the late or wet stage is due to thegrowth of abnormal new vessels under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from the subjacent choroid, termed choroidal neovascularization(CNV). Extracellular matrix turnover (ECM], inflammation, andangiogenesis are key cellular processes that play a central role in thepathogenesis of AMD. The scientific evidences to support theinterpretation of the RPE injury by hydroquinone are reviewed in depth,especially the proposed role of hydroquinone on ECM turnover,inflammation, and CNV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHydroquinone
Subtitle of host publicationProduction, Uses and Health Effects
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages56
ISBN (Print)9781621002581
StatePublished - 2012


  • Actin cytoskeleton
  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Angiogenesis
  • Animal model
  • Blebbing
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Extracellular matrix turnover
  • Hsp25/27
  • Hydroquinone
  • Inflammation
  • MAPK
  • Reactive oxygen intermediates
  • Response to injury
  • Sub-RPE deposits

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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